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Allegations of iran in bahrain

 

When discussing the issue of the Iranian Bahraini dispute, any researcher should refer to the overflowing memory of His Highness Sheikh Khalifa Bin Salman to uncover its historical, geographic and political origins. ... We must revert to the vision of His Highness for the repercussions of this issue and how it ended; His Highness has adopted the central, internal perspective in dealing with this dispute with Iran. This perspective has won the appreciation of enemies before friends, and has been recognized for its usefulness and amazing results from the whole world. In fact, the dispute between any two nations, one at the height of its power and the other in its early growth, will not eventually end in the interest of the Minor State, as has been the case throughout history.

Therefore one can imagine the effort, the ability and the wisdom shown by His Highness Sheikh Khalifa, who dealt with the problem wisely, which ended with a worldwide recognition of Bahrains sovereignty and independence. It was one of the most prominent and the most serious challenges faced by the brothers: Sheikh Issa and Sheikh Khalifa.

This Iranian-Bahraini dispute goes back to more than one hundred and fifty years ago, when Bahrain was on the path of growth and revival; it was the subject of many constraints, ambitions and exceptional circumstances. Iran, on the other hand, does not stop its prosecution against the Bahraini land and declares threats from time to time to include Bahrain in its sovereignty as the 14th province of the Iranian territories.

During the period of British protectorate, Iran was forced to condone, at some times, its allegations and threats to Bahrain. Therefore it hastened to release its allegations and old threats immediately following the announcement of the British government's decisions on the termination of its presence in the region. During these long years of Iranian allegations, the subordination of Bahrain to the Iranian territory, the successive governments of Iran fed plans to seize Bahrain and encouraging settlement migration to it in order to influence the demographic balances and form an absolute majority of Iranians, which will in the end implement the Iranian dreams from inside Bahrain. Although the waves of Iranian immigration to the Bahrain have witnessed a remarkable intensification since the Shah Mohammad Reda Pahlawi held the rein in Iran in 1914, this wave has not stopped almost since 1921.


In this regard, historical references indicate that the rule of Reda Khan in 1921 coincided with the political and religious persecution that led individuals and groups from the Iranian people, to flee to some of the neighboring countries ... This wave has formed the first phase of the three main phases that the Iranian migrations to the Arab Gulf, to Bahrain in particular, have passed.


The second phase came after the discovery of oil; this stage has witnessed several waves of Iranian emigrants, who arrived to Bahrain in search of abundant livelihood and better means of living, and to escape from poverty. The intense of these waves have drawn the attention of the ruling establishment in Bahrain, but the reduction of these migrations did not happen in practice until 1937, when the Governor of Bahrain, then His Highness Sheikh Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, 2391 - 2491 ordered issuing new Bahraini passports and the reduction of human migrations to Bahrain. As a result, the Iranian migration waves headed to other Gulf countries, such as Dubai, Qatar, and Kuwait.

The third and most serious phase started with the handling of Mohammad Reda the Authority in Tehran through an immense scheme that aimed to intensify human migration (the settlement) to the Gulf countries and to Bahrain in particular. These migrations have increased in the 1960s in a remarkable way, especially with the escalating of oil production in the Gulf States and the need for more manpower. The intensification of the human presence on the land of the Arabian Gulf was a dangerous phenomenon that alerted the governors and officials in the Gulf States, that this issue was discussed at the level of the Arab League, which have felt the seriousness of the Iranian schemes and realized the role played by the Shah and the successive governments of Tehran in this regard


The crisis of the Iranian migration was presented to the League Council in its forty one assembly, and in March 31, 1964, the University issued a verdict, that states: the Council had discussed, with great interest, the foreign immigration to Arab Gulf States, and the threat this pose on the Arab region, therefore, the Council has issued a series of recommendations, namely:

First: The initiative of the media channels in the University and the Member States to acknowledge and study the Immigration threats.

Second: sending a delegation from the Arab League to agree with the Emirs of the Gulf to restrict the foreign immigration for the prevention of common dangers, and to discuss the means of strengthening ties with the brotherly Arab states.

Third: Re-examining the issue as soon as possible in the light of the report submitted by the University and studying it in order to develop a plan of joint Arab cooperation with the region in various fields, and the prevention of foreign threats.

On the Overall, the increasing migration of Iranians to Bahrain was a serious and clear crisis on the balance of population, and because of the lack of original population density in the kingdom, the immigration policy of Iran was designed to enable it to extend its influence and achieve its expansionist ambitions.

To achieve these new schemes, the Iranian government provided support for the Iranian immigrants and residents in Bahrain. One of the priorities of these schemes was the composition of a prominent class of traders, and capitalists that can establish broad popular bases, extremely influential in the Bahraini street. At the same time, Iran has made clear efforts to keep emigrants away from the Arab Bahraini society and did not encourage their integration within the Bahraini community and its various facilities. In this regard, they have established private schools for their children according to the Iranian curricula, as well as establishing special clubs that aimed to create a atmospheres of cultural and social activities similar to those in Iran, in addition to retaining the customs, traditions and the Persian language, so as to keep their allegiance and ethnic nationalism.

Therefore, it is not difficult to meet Iranian families in Bahrain who are still speaking the Persian language, and if they speak Arabic, it would be in broken accent.

The division Iranians residing in Bahrain at that time came in two categories, namely:

The First category: The Iranians who have acquired the Bahraini nationality previously. These are distributed in three groups, namely:

The rich and the capitalists, these formed a separate class that aimed to control the resources of the country and the monopoly income sources and influence, and those had close ties with the authorities in Tehran.

The Iranians who had been in Bahrain for hundreds of years, and who have merged with their fellow Arab Bahrainis, and therefore had feelings and affiliations closer to the feelings and affiliations of Arabs and Bahrainis.

Iranians who have not given up the Iranian nationality.

The Second category: The Iranians who did not acquire Bahraini nationality (the immigrants.), and these are distributed among the two groups: (a. immigrants who had migrated naturally in search of a source of revenue and a safe life.) and (b. immigrants sent and organized by Iranian authorities to set a national alliance in Bahrain with Tehran, and these were of great threat.

The Iranian community was one of the largest communities in Bahrain ... The number of Iranian people occupying economic, social and political in the country was immense. However, a large number of those considered Bahrain a place for carrying out their economic enterprises, but they were also leveling affiliations to Iran and declaring their sympathy with them in word and deed ... They did not hesitate to suspend photos of Shah in their shops, business, homes and companies. Moreover, a large number of senior wealthy Iranians were keen to deposit their money in Iranian banks. In general, the relations between the Iranian community and the citizens of Bahrain took a negative orientation and tension arose from time to time. In the same spirit, the Iranians residing in Bahrain looked at the British, taking a negative attitude towards them, especially as they felt that Britain was a barrier to achieving the expansionist ambitions of Iran in the Gulf.

After Mossadeq Revolution, and as a result of the difficulties faced by the British government upon the revolutionary governments nationalization of the Iranian oil in 1950, tension increased between the Iranians and British. The case continued until Iran entered in the Baghdad Pact, and the British policy in the region changes drastically, which intensified upon the fall of Mossadeq and the inclination of Iranian policy toward the West.

In fact, Britain was also responsible for the politics of Iranian migration to Bahrain, and it undoubtedly played a hidden role in this direction, in order to create a pressure factor to be used when needed. If the British role was hidden in the past, now it has moved to the open and public subsequently and in particular upon the increase of Arab nationalism, following the success of the July Revolution in Egypt, and the emergence of the Arab nationalist movements tide in the region. Thus, Britain began encouraging the Iranian migration to the Gulf region publicly.

This was a brief preview of the historic course of the issue of the Iranian presence in the Bahraini land, a presence which is also a manifestation of the Iranian ambitions in Bahrain. These ambitions increased after announcement of the British government that expressed its intention to end its presence on the Gulf region, including the Bahraini land.

According to the facts of history, Iran did not stop at the level of claiming that Bahrain was part of its land, it was also the reason behind some unrest and riots in Bahrain since the beginning of this century. When there had been some internal problems in Bahrain in 9191, many calls in Iran were demanding the appointment of a representative of Bahrain in the Iranian parliament and holding the elections there. In fact, the real reason behind the problems that Iran has tried to depict to serve its allegations, was the demands made by residents of Bahrain to the Governor of the country at the time, Sheikh Isa bin Ali Al Khalifa, urging him not to apply the civil and criminal laws set by Britain and not to put the customs at the disposal of the British, who have damaged the national interests of traders.

Many reliable studies and references affirm that Iran was behind the unrest in Bahrain in 1922, when it urged some residents of Iranian origin to stir the events of unrest at that time. The Iranian press has taken advantage of this opportunity to rouse the people and the public opinion towards the Iranian occupation of Bahrain and its fall under the British control.

These newspapers were calling for the establishment of Iranian consulate in Bahrain in order to be able to contact some of the population of Iranian origin, the pretext of defending their interests.

Historical references indicate that Iran has also practiced all forms of harassment to the Bahrain nationals coming to visit the holy places in Iran. In the month of June 1922, the British consulate in Bandar Abbas sent a report to its government stating that the Iranian passport officials at the Iranian Bandar Linga port have confiscated the passports of Bahrain nationals, who were coming to Iran to visit the holy places and deemed them nationals of Iran.

As a result, the British minister protested to the Iranian government in Tehran on these illegal acts. Consequently, Tehran Central government has issued its orders to its employees not to repeat such actions in future.

But Iranian newspapers attacked the decision, and the government called for the Iranian occupation of Bahrain, which forced the government of Tehran issue orders to treat the Bahrainis as dependent subjects.

Therefore, it sent its clients Bahrain to hold talks with the Iranians residents in order to foment unrest and turmoil. These talks focused on some prominent Iranian traders in Bahrain.

In 1923, the Iranian Consulate in Al Najaf stressed that all Iranians and citizens in Bahrain should register their names at the Iranian Consulate at Al Najaf. A copy of this declaration was handed to the British High Commissioner residing in Iraq. The British reaction against these illegal acts was severe; the High Representative has solemnly warned the Tehran government called for the immediate withdrawal of this declaration.

Since that time, Britain has taken the necessary steps to face the allegations and the declarations made by the Iranian consuls in Iraq. His Highness, the late Sheikh Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, then crown prince of Bahrain, had issued in the 9th of September, 1923, a resolution declaring: It has come to my attention that some consuls of the Iranian government register our Bahraini citizens as Iranian nationals.

Therefore, I strongly protest this, as it constitutes a flagrant violation of the sovereign rights conferred upon me as the Crown Prince of Bahrain. I consider any registration of this kind illegal, and the person who accepts this same registration, or the registration of any member of his family, will be dismissed from Bahrain and have his deterrent punishment. "

Sheikh Hamad Bin Isa Al-Khalifa also addressed an ultimatum to the Iranian nationals residing in Bahrain that: if their conspiracy has been proved, they will receive a deterrent penalty, including the confiscation of their property and final ejection from Bahrain."

The narration of these details does not intend the abuse of a major and important nation in the region, but to provide a comprehensive picture of the historical background to this issue.

To complete this picture, we must cite some facts mentioned in studies and references in this regard, that the strict measures taken by the British authorities and the governor of Bahrain did not deter Iran. In 1927 Iran resorted to another method, which is sending its clients and its emigrants in order to incite the people against the rulers of Bahrain, and stirring up sectarian strife in the country. This came in a memo sent by the British political resident in the Gulf to the government of India; the official said that "Bahrain has become a base for conspiracies and the Iranian intensive migration to Bahrain must be stopped."

In recognition of the seriousness of the Iranian immigration to Bahrain, the British government has taken some measures that could reduce such migration. One of these actions was that Britain asked the Governor of Bahrain, who in turn was frustrated from this migration, to pass a law on the first of January 1929 not to allow anyone carrying Iranian passports or travel documents to enter Bahrain before obtaining certified passports from the British consulates in some Iranian cities and ports. This resolution was signed by "Sir Charles Bljrev", the Special Adviser of the government of Bahrain.

The 1929 Act did not succeed in stopping Iranian migration to Bahrain. On the contrary, Iran intensified these waves of migration to Bahrain, which forced the government to pass a law on nationality and property in 1939 to limit the access of the Iranians to the Bahraini nationality.

The Governor of Bahrain at the time continued his attempts to hinder these renewable allegations. He wrote in a letter to the political British resident requesting from the British government under the "protection" agreement, to end the Iranian allegations and illegal demands. In this letter he declared that Bahrain Senate intends to send Sheikh Mohammad, the brother of Sheikh Hamad Bin Isa, the Crown Prince, to Geneva on behalf of the Governor and the people of Bahrain to stand in the face of Iranian allegations and claims.

In the wake of the end of the Second World War, Iran thought that the time is appropriate to achieve its ambitions in Bahrain and affirm its previous allegations. Therefore, in 1946 the Iranian parliament enacted a resolution which affirms Iran determination to exercise its sovereignty over Bahrain and the application of postal charges on internal messages to Bahrain.

Then the Iranian acceleration took new dimensions when in 1957, the Iranian government issued a new decree for annexation of Bahrain - which has been referred to as the 14th Iranian territory - to the Iranian lands.

Fifteen years following that date, Iran has continued issuing statements and declarations that reveal its intentions about Bahrain and its insistence on the annexation. Iran took advantage of the British decision to withdraw from the Arab Gulf, which was issued on the first of April 1968, to reaffirm what it called "the rights of Iran in the Gulf.

His Highness Sheikh Khalifa Bin Salman Al Khalifa recalls with appreciation the role played by the late King Faisal bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud, former King of Saudi Arabia, "1946-1957" in his support of the standpoint of Bahrain in the face of the Iranian allegations. Sheikh Khalifa said that the close relations of fraternity and friendship between the sincere fraternal peoples of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Bahrain have urged King Faisal to make great efforts to influence the emperor Shah Mohammad Reda Pahlawi of Iran, "1914 - 1979" in his policies and orientations towards Bahrain.

King Faisals influence reached its utmost during the historical meeting that was held in Jeddah in October 1968, which put the issue of Bahrain on top of the agenda. The political situation in the region at that time was still going through a very critical period because of the regional tensions one hand, and the consequences brought about by the Iranian allegations on the other hand.

The Bahraini political and diplomatic efforts brought its first outcome, when the Shah of Iran Mohammad Reda Pahlawi in the 4th of January, 1969, during his visit to New Delhi, has declared regarding Irans policy towards Bahrain, by saying: "the Bahrain Islands were separated from our country one hundred and fifty years ago by the British and attached it to their empire.

In Its policy that is based on the non-adoption of territorial gains by force. If the population of Bahrain does not wish to join in our country, we will not resort to force, because that would be contrary to the principles of our policy. "

Upon many indirect contacts between officials in Bahrain and Iran, a meeting has been arranged between officials of the two countries. It was agreed that this meeting takes place in Geneva. There, Sheikh Khalifa bin Salman, President of the Administrative Council and Sheikh Mohammed Bin Mubarak Al-Khalifa, Chairman of the Foreign Affairs and Media Department, made strenuous efforts in the negotiations that took place between the delegation of Bahrain and the Iranian government delegation headed by the Special Representative of His Majesty the Shah of Iran.

I asked His Highness Sheikh Khalifa: "How can you face Iran, which was at the height of its power, with Bahrains modest possibilities?"

He replied with confidence that: "it is the faith in truth and the power of will". He went on describing the memories of this stage, saying: "when we sat with the Iranian delegation for the first time at the negotiating table in Geneva, the President of the Iranian delegation made an inappropriate start, as he began by threats and intimidation, in a manner not befitting an atmosphere of negotiations between the two countries.

Some of what he said that Iran can send its warships to Bahrain and occupy in hours and resolve the issue. Then I informed the President of the Iranian delegation that Bahrain might be small in its size, but we will defend it with all our strength, faith and determination until the last drop of our blood, and that he will not land any because it will be burning fire. "

Sheikh Khalifa ended the session and left the meeting hall after he concluded his speech to the Iranian official by saying: "We come here to negotiate and not to listen to threats." Only few minutes passed when the telephone rang in the hotel both in which Sheikh Khalifa resides. The spokesman was the head of the Iranian delegation personally asking him in a diplomatic manner, which seemed quite different from his previous behavior, to return to the meeting.

It was clear that this development came at the direction of the Shah of Iran personally, after he has been informed by telephone by the head of the Iranian delegation of what went on in the meeting. It was also clear that the shah no longer had the slightest doubt in the Arab identity of Bahrain and the justice of its cause, and these negotiations were the only way to save his pride, and an attempt to portray his country in a civilized manner, contrary to its manners the decades of its allegations to Bahrain.

The negotiations between the two Bahraini and Iranian delegations lasted for several months and continued with a series of contacts at various levels between the two sides from one hand, and between Bahrain and Britain on the other hand, and between the three countries together on the third, and also within the framework of the United Nations. Of course, the firm position of, which has been adopted by Sheikh Khalifa, whether in negotiations or contacts, had the greatest impact on refuting the Iranian fabrications and strengthening the position of Bahrain. Theses negotiations and extensive contacts revolved around three main solutions to the issue of Bahrain and Iran.

The first solution was the "principle of the referendum", set by the Shah of Iran in an indirect way during his visit to India in 1969. However, Sheikh Khalifa was being conservative about the acceptance of this principle on the grounds that it involves questioning the Arabism of Bahrain, and that can be taken as a precedent that would encourage the major, powerful countries to claim any small state on historical or housing basis.

The second solution was that Iran put this matter for the International Committee to End Colonization, which was known as Committee 42. These developments in the relations between Britain and Adan had led proposing this solution, but Bahrains status was completely different from that relation between Britain and Adan, where the first was military occupying the second.

The third solution was getting the case into the International Justice Court, though this of course was not among the specialty of this court because there was not a legal dispute between the Arabs and Iran for the courts to look into.

On the other hand, Bahrain agreed, supported in this by a number of Arab Countries in the United Nations, to establish a committee to investigate the fats, and the general secretary of the International Organization will decide its members. The general secretary did not find a necessity to establish such a committee and proposed instead to send a personal commissioner on his behalf to Bahrain to investigate the facts and meet with the citizens. Later, he will submit a report to the general secretary, who in turn will send the report t the Security Council to be registered as an international document for Iran to admit and approve of.

Through the secret communications between Britain and Iran, they agreed to accept this solution, which the former Soviet Union rejected when its representative at the United Nations submitted the rejection of his country because the general secretary of the International Organization had taken this step without referring to the five permanent members in the Security Council. The general secretary replied to the Soviet rejection by saying that the disputing parties have already agreed on the solution, and there were other cases in the past in the United Nations that the general secretary managed.

At 12:50pm on the 26th of March 1970, London Radio announced that Iran and Britain have filed a requested to the general secretary of the United Nations to send a commissioner from the International Organization to register the opinion of the people of Bahrain whether they prefer Independence or joining Iran.

On Monday the 29th of March on the same year, Bahrains State Council had issued, after a long meeting chaired by His Highness Skeikh Khalifa bin Salman, a statement for the people of Bahrain that said: the Iranian attitude towards Bahrain should be dealt with and solved from its basis, not only as an issue that belongs to the two countries, but also to ensure the future of the whole region. The statement also added: we have accepted this procedure because it does not interfere with our sovereignty and our pride as an independent state, and it does not mean our admittance of the Iranian allegations; it is to prove our sincere intensions to cooperate with the countries of the whole region Citizens it is a historical moment in which we declare to the world our true identity, our knowledge and superiority. It is a chance to affirm our willingness for peace and our vivid right.

Preparing for this event was not confined only to Bahrain; Iran was preparing the scene for the results of the United Nations commission, which by no doubt will affirm the Arabism of Bahrain. In this regard, the Iranian deputy council held an urgent session chaired by Mr. Abdullah Ryadi, the Councils chairman. The Minister of Exterior, Mr. Ardshayar Zahdi, had opened the session with a long speech entitled the Issue of Bahrain and the Destiny of its People; we will quote its last paragraph, in which the Iranian Minister says: as you all revered deputies know the British government will withdraw from the Persian Gulf in 1971. It might seem that the existing barriers to regain Bahrain have disappeared, but it should be noted that many changes have taken place in the nature of the citizens of Bahrain because of this long period, which certainly left something in most of the peoples inner affiliations there.
Upon these notes, His Majesty Shahin shah Aryamahr has set, during the press interview in January 1969 in New Delhi, the reasonable and rational lines that Iran had to choose to solve the issue of Bahrain. He said, in these clear and wise declarations, that Iran will always affirm its policy not to use force to get regional lands and privileges against the will of the citizens of that area. I would like to say that if the citizens of Bahrain do not want to join our country, we will never use power.

Please note here the Iranian officials use of the expression international disputes, which is considered an early and direct admittance from Iran of the independence of Bahrain. The dispute is between two nations, and not as some claim it is inner Iranian disputes.

It is a musing to know that four out of five members of the Iranian party in this session have voted with agreement on the mentioned solution, whilst the partys party deputy, Mr. Fadel Alah Sadr, voted against his solution. The result was expelling Mr. Fadel from the party for his opposing position. The specialized authorities in Iran have ceased the issuance of Khak Khun newspaper because of its attack on the Iranian policy regarding its decision of ending its claims in Bahrain. On his part, Mr. Masoudi, Deputy Chairman of the Iranian Senators Council, said: Bahrain has developed in this present time and witnessed massive change. Mr. Masoudi added, in his declaration that was transmitted through Tahrans Radio: Iran can not build its positions on old theories that go back to over 150 years.

It is worth mentioning that the Iranian Senators Council has unanimously agreed on the approach taken by the Iranian government to solve Bahrains case. In the deputies council, all the Iranian parties have agreed on this same approach except one party, Ban Iran party", which is known for its extremism. But the members of this party were few and thus their influence was meager. After the approval of the parties related to Bahrains case: Britain, Iran and Bahrains government, and at 7 in the morning of the 3rd of March 1970, His Highness Sheikh Khalifa bin Slaman, chairman of the Council of the State, was in the reception hall in Bahrains International Airport waiting for the arrival of the facts investigation committee from the United Nations. This committee consisted of six international representatives from Indonesia, Ireland, France, India and Jordan, in addition to its Italian chairman Mr. Wensbear Jeo Shardi. Jeo Shardi, upon his arrival to Bahrains Airport, had announced that he will make visits to the institutions, organizations, councils, and some members of the people.

He also announced his welcoming to all those who want to visit him or contact him. At the end of his speech, he affirmed his willingness to do his job with all honesty, neutrality, objectivity and justice without any prejudice or deviance and without any interference with the every day affairs of the citizens.

The United Nations investigation program for the United Nations Committee has been established to include most of areas of the country. The commission started its meetings with the citizens in the afternoon of the day of their arrival in the conference hall at the Gulf Hotel, the religion men were the first to be met at five in the afternoon. Meetings went on from here for most clubs, villages and institutions; the committee was keen to include most of the members and categories of the people of Bahrain in this investigation.

For example, the commission met with the administrations of the clubs of Al Oroba, the Graduates, Bahrain, Jad Hafs, Al Nosor, Al Sanabes, Algeria, Setra, Al Rafa, Al Yarmouk, Al Eslah, Al Naim, Al Ahli and Al Tarsana.

The women societies also had their turn; the commission met with the administrations of Childhood and Motherhood Care Society and the Renaissance of Bahrains Woman Society. In addition to other societies like: the writers and literates association, Bahrains Artists association, the Bahraini Red Moon Association and many more.

While the investigation committee was doing its job in Bahrain, Saudi Arabia Minister of Exterior Mr. Omar Al Saqaf, was on a visit to Iran. Al Saqaf announced during his visit that: Irans position regarding the issue of Bahrain is a peaceful and a reasonable position, and the wise policy of Shhahinsha is always a source of appreciation. This declaration was in the pattern of the efforts of the Saudi Arabia to support the cause of Bahrain and to give the Shah government the regional appreciation it needed in the inside.

On the 19th of April 1970, the committee traveled to Geneva after completing its mission in Bahrain. On the 30th of that month, Mr. Jeo Shardi presented a full report of the results of his commission in Bahrain to the United Nations Secretary-General Jeo Shardi mentioned in his report that he intended to investigate the opinions of the associations, societies and ordinary people; he also visited remote villages and made many interviews and personal communications.

Most of the replies collected by the committee met on two points: first, all people long for stability and peace in the region and having more intimate relations the leaders of the Gulf countries including Iran. Second, to establish a country that has complete sovereignty and independence; the majority wants this state to be an Arab state.

It is worth mentioning that this report was approved by the International Security Council and upon it all the countries of the world have admitted the independence of Bahrain, along with all its islands including Howar Islands. This ends Irans allegations in Bahrain, which as a result makes the Qatari allegations in Howar Islands groundless.

Before holding the Security Council to approve the statement of the fact investigation committee, Bahrains delegation traveled to the United Kingdom, and it consisted of the Chairman of the Exterior Department, Skeikh Mohammad bin Mubarak Al Khalifa, and the legal advisor for the Council of the State Mr. Hussein Mohammad Al Baharni, and some specialists.

On May 1970 the Security Council approved the report of the investigation committee about the issue of Bahrain. Therefore, the Iranian allegations in Bahrain dropped after more than 150 years. When the International Committee had seen on the real ground the independence of Bahrain and its very old Arabism, the government of Shah Iran could not but admit the new resolution.

The Neighbors Greed.

Later Iran began approaching Bahrain; on the 17th of May 1970, it sent a delegation chaired by the deputy of the Exterior Ministry to congratulate Bahrain for the issuance of the resolution. It is also ironic that this official was the same one who chaired that the Iranian delegation for the first negotiations in Geneva with Bahrain!

To affirm the Arab originality of Bahrain, chairman of the Council of State at that time His Highness Skeikh Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa in June 1970, has made the first Bahraini official visit to Iran since quarter of a century. Upon these developments, the Irani-Bahraini relations have improved a great deal. A short time after the return of His Highness Sheikh Khalifa from Iran, Bahrain received another invitation to His Highness Skeikh Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa, the governor of the country at that time, from Shah Mohammad Rida Bahlawi inviting him to visit Iran. On the 18th of December of the same year, Skeih Isa went to Iran.

Because of Sheikh Khalifas keenness to develop friendly and cooperation relations between Bahrain and Iran, and because he wanted to affirm the mechanisms of the political work and the commercial and economic exchange between them, on the 24th of May 1975 he visited Tahran a second time in response to an invitation from Mr. Amir Abbas Howayda, the Iranian Prime Minister at that time.

This visit had an exceptional impact, according to what the world news agencies have transmitted, and carried with it a great Iranian appreciation for this great Arab politician; this appreciation has reflected on everything starting from the agenda prepared before the visit.

Upon the arrival of Sheikh Khalifa and the accompanying delegation to Tahran Airport, he had an enormous reception; his march was escorted by wagons dragged by horses to the center of the Iranian capital. This was in addition to the generous reception and welcoming of the Iranian people who lined in the streets to salute the Bahraini delegation. The appreciation reached its utmost during and after the negotiations he had with the former Shah Iran.

During the end of the negotiations they had in the empiric palace in Tahran, the Shah walked with Sheikh Khalifa till the door of the palace.

There Sheikh Khalifa, and the accompanying delegation, stopped to express his gratitude and thanks to the Shah, who in turn insisted on walking with is guest to his residence in the one of the palaces beside the main palace. The Shah walked through the spacious gardens of the palace; the Iranian officials were amazed to see their emperor ignore the protocol requirements of the Shahenshahi palace. This was a special appreciation note from Al Shah to his great guest.

On May 1954, while the world was listening with rejoice to a series of news and international statements that announced the end of World War II and the victory of the coalition and Britain in particular, in addition to the United States of America, the citizens of Bahrain were expressing their happiness for Britains victory on hope that the post war conditions will encourage Britain to redirect its attention to modernizing Bahrain and compensating it for what it missed during the war.

Immediately after the end of World War II, the Iranian Press launched a huge campaign against Britain that demands for the Iranian sovereignty over Bahrain, especially the press with communist inclination. This came about upon the increase of the massive communist influence in Iran because most of the northern parts of Iran were under the Soviet influence, in addition to the flourishing of Todeh party in the Iranian ground.

On the 12th of September 1954, the main column of Neroz Iran newspaper has recorded the speech of the Iranian Minister of Exterior in the Deputy Council in which he talked about the trespassing of the Russian forces, then he requested that the United States slow down in extracting oil from the Bahraini oil fields because of the Iranian rights and its property in Bahrain. The newspaper also mentioned that these rights were proved by the documents at the Iranian Minister of Exterior!!

Over the months of February, March and May of 1946, the Iranian newspapers escalated its campaign that called for the expelling of the Soviet forces at North Iran by forcing it through the United States of America, in addition to the claims of the Iranian government of the necessity of regaining Bahrain to the Iranian sovereignty and expelling the British forces from Bahrains Island and getting rid of the British in any possible way.

Todeh party communist newspaper issued on the 27th and the 28th of April 1946 had requested the presentation of Bahrains issue on the peace conferences in order to make the coalition support the idea of giving Bahrain to Iran. But the Iranian government knew its weak allegations in addition to the great influence of the British government at the United Nations because it is one of the major countries; in spite of this the Iranian newspapers continued in publishing many essays about the Iranian allegations in Bahrains dependency.

The Iranian allegations took a new form when the Ministry of Education issued a decree to teach Bahrains dependency to Iran in the schools. The decree also indicated that with regard to the outstanding fact that Bahrain Archipelago is part of Iran, then the inhabitants of that land are Iranian citizens; therefore, all teachers are requested to clarify this matter to their students in order to raise the new generation and the following generations on the idea that Bahrain is a part of Iran.

Within this trend, the Iranian Council of Ministers had issued a decree on April 1946, which stated that the production of oil in Bahrain and the oil exported abroad should be subject to the same procedures followed for the Anglo-Persian Petrol Company. Since the issuance of this decree, the Iranian press launched a campaign against Bahrain and the oil companies working in it and against the British existence.

In the same year, the Iranian government had made other political procedures and was able to issue a decree from the Iranian Parliamentary Council to take the necessary procedures to apply the postal charges on the letters going in and out of Bahrain in order to practice its sovereignty over Bahrain, or so it thought.

The ambassador of the United States of America in Tahran had visited Bahrain for five hours on the 13th of August 1946; he had a long meeting with the British political resident in Bahrain. At that time, the political resident told him that the Iranian Prime Minister had shown him the original letter of 1869 addressed from the British government in which it admits the sovereignty of Iran over Bahrain. He also informed him that the Persian state was still asserting its allegations about the island, and that he the Iranian Prime Minister did not intend to bring up the Iranian allegations about Bahrain or carry it to the United Nations or the International Justice Court now. He thought it an undesirable thing and something that was unlikely to succeed because of the influence of the British in the international organizations.

After that the Iranian allegations of Bahrains subordination to Iran has risen up among the Iranian population; led and stirred by the Iranian government On the 12th of December 1946, Tahrans radio transmitted a speech for one of the members of the Democratic Party in Tahran in the occasion of submitting congratulations to the Prime Minister for the ending of Adarbejan issue upon the withdrawal of the Soviet forces from the Iranian northern parts, which had given the Iranians a motif to demand for the borders of their ancient empire before Islam.

That is why the Iranian chief said in his radio speech: The Persian army who restored his land has shown unique courage and heroism, and requested from the Iranian president to make the Iranian army raise the sun and lion slogans all over the old Persian state starting from Sharkas to Khanqen and from Oras to Bahrain!

The Iranian government had taken other political procedures like denying the Bahraini passports for those visiting Bahrain for tourism or for visiting the holy sites of the Shea. All Bahrainis who visited Iran were deprived of heir Bahraini passports and given Iranian travel certificate instead.

Another thing has enraged His Highness Sheikh Salman bin Hamad, the governor of Bahrain, when the far east radio station, associated with Britain, transmitted declarations of a man who claimed to be a member of the Bahraini Liberal Party and also claimed that the people of Bahrain would like to join Iran! Therefore, the governor of Bahrain had written a letter to the British political resident in the Arabian Gulf to inform him this news and that man who contacted with Iran; Sheikh Salman insisted that no one had the right to talk in the name of the people of Bahrain except him. This man had also claimed that he represents a secret party I Bahrain and had submitted the following claims to the Iranian Parliamentary Council:

Licensing the representation of a Bahraini member in the council.

Extending the Iranian educational services to Bahrain and accepting the Bahraini students to study at Tahran University.

Establishing centers in the Iranian ports to facilitate the entrance of Bahrainis to Iran.

Adding special programs in the Iranian Radio for the citizens of Bahrain.

It is worth mentioning that this person has submitted a forgiveness request to the government of Bahrain after the Bahraini independence in the 14th of August 1971.

The government had agreed to forgive him as it agreed for allowing him to nominate himself for the constitutional council in the year 1972; the government treated with all amnesty, but the people rejected him; only 11 persons voted for him!!

Published and executed by the Scientific Innovation Center founded by
the Researcher Tawfeek Al Hamad, Bahrain 1992